Perchlorates on Mars

I love space. I always have. I remember being a child in California, hanging upside down, and staring at my poster of the space shuttle.

This piece was made as an infographic as a companion piece to my senior presentation on perchlorates in Martian regolith. Each of the eight icons quickly teaches a reader something new about the subject. The icons are color coded to draw the reader’s eye around the paper. Arrows point out where those items were or are currently happening on Mars. I particularly enjoy the northern ice cap and Pavonis Mons, an ancient volcano. The QR code links to this page for the sources below.


1. Carrier, B. L., and Kounaves, S. P., “The origins of perchlorate in the Martian soil.” Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3739–3745. 2015. https:/​

2. Catling, D. C., M. W. Claire, K. J. Zahnle, R. C. Quinn, B. C. Clark, M. H. Hecht, and Kounaves, S., “Atmospheric origins of perchlorate on Mars and in the Atacama.” J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E11, 2010.

3. Chevrier, V. F., J. Hanley, and T. S. Altheide, “Stability of perchlorate hydrates and their liquid solutions at the Phoenix landing site, Mars.” Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10202, 2009.

4. Eichler, A., N. Hadland, D. Pickett, D. Masaitis, D. Handy, A. Perez, D. Batcheldor, B. Wheeler, and A. Palmer. “Challenging the agricultural viability of martian regolith simulants.” Icarus, Volume 354, 114022. 2021.

5. Fisher, David, Denis Lacelle, and Wayne Pollard, “A possible perchlorate-enabled mechanism for forming thick near surface excess ice layers; in the Amazonian regolith of Mars.” Icarus, Volume 387, 115198. 2022.

6. He, H., Gao H., Chen G., Li H., Lin H., Shu Z. “Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.” Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. Oct 20(10):7301-8. Epub 2013 May 15. PMID: 23673920.

​7. Llorente-Esteban, A., R.W. Manville, A. Reyna-Neyra. “Allosteric regulation of mammalian Na+/I− symporter activity by perchlorate.” Nat Struct Mol Biol 27, 533–539. 2020.​

8. Oze, Christopher, Joshua Beisel, Edward Dabsys, Jacqueline Dall, Gretchen North, Allan Scott, Alandra Marie Lopez, Randall Holmes, and Scott Fendorf. “Perchlorate and Agriculture on Mars” Soil Systems 5, no. 3: 37. 2021.

9. Wu, Zhongchen , Alian Wang, William M. Farrell, Yuanchao Yan, Kun Wang, Jennifer Houghton, and Andrew W. Jackson. “Forming perchlorates on Mars through plasma chemistry during dust events.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 504, 94-105. 2018.

10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mars daily global image from April 1999. 2000. Digital photo. 3200×2400. Mars,​

  • Purpose

    Scientific Infographic

  • Class